INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

 

UNIT STRUCTURE

1. Learning Objectives
2. Introduction
3. Concept of Public Relations

1. Definition of Public Relations
2. Objectives of Public Relations
3. Functions of Public Relations


4. Growth and Development of Public Relations
5. Target Audience and Publics of PR
6. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
7. Let us sum up
8. Further Readings
9. Answers to Check Your Progress
10. Possible Questions

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 
After going through this unit, you will be able to:
define the term ‘Public Relations‘ (PR)
analyze the objectives and functions of Public Relations
discuss its growth and development in the world
explain the important stages of PR in India
enumerate the target audience and publics in PR
define the term CSR

INTRODUCTION


By now you must have already been familiar with the broad concept of advertising, which is an important part of mass communication. Advertisement has become an integral part in today’s marketing scenario. In earlier times, advertisement was not given as much emphasis as it is being given today. In this unit of Course – 2, we would try to explain to you some important aspects of Public Relations.

“Public Relations” is a management function that creates, develops, and carries out policies and programmes to influence public opinion or public reaction about an idea, a product, or an organization. The field of public relations has become an important part of the economic, social, and political pattern of life in many nations.

Public relations activities in the modern world help individuals and organizations to build prestige, to promote products and to win elections or legislative battles. This unit will concentrate on the concept of Public Relations, and its objectives and functions. Our purpose is to make you familiar with the growth and development of PR. In the following unit, that is Unit – 5, we will consider PR practitioners and a PR organization in India.
 

Concept of Public Relations


In today’s business and non-business operations, PR has assumed a significant role. The public becomes aware and assertive at the end of the seventies of the last century. But they now seek to demand more communications from firms, departments of the state, and NGOs about their objective, operations, and motives. PR establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationship between a firm and the public upon whom its success or failure squarely depends.

Public Relations is, simply stated, the art and science of building relationships between an organization and its key audiences or the publics. The concept of public relations is an emerging notion, especially in mass communication discipline. It is basically a management function. PR tries to build an image of an organization and tries to develop a good and sustainable relationship between the organization and its publics. It should be based on truth, knowledge and information.

Public Relations activities are a major part of the political process in many nations. Politicians seeking office, government agencies seeking acceptance and cooperation, officials seeking support for their policies, and foreign governments seeking aid and allies abroad all make extensive use of the services provided by public relations specialists.


Definition of Public Relations


As mentioned above, it is basically a management function. The British Institute of Public Relations has given special attention to evolving a comprehensive definition of the term Public Relations. According to them, Public Relations is ‘ A deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its’ public.’

Now let us analyze the definition. This comprehensive definition given by the British Institute of Public Relations says that PR is basically an effort to establish and maintain good relations between the organization and the publics. What type of effort? It should be deliberate, planned and sustained.

‘Deliberate’ because public relations practitioners try to make it clear that the success of their job depends on the promises and that nothing should happen by an accident. It is ‘planned’ because a public relation practitioner is always in control of what is being done; he leaves nothing to chance, so he must work to a plan and on a planned basis. The thought is sufficiently vital for it to demand the double emphasis of ‘deliberate’ and ‘planned’. It is also “sustained” because a public relations practitioner always tries to implement a thought or an idea and it continues for a long time.

According to the above stated definition of PR, the mutual understanding between the organization and its publics is necessary, because no man can work in a vaccum. Everybody works for somebody. A public relations practitioner works for an organization- a govt., a public sector undertaking, business, charity or any other. The PR deals with the ‘Public’, because the organization for which he works, wants to be understood and appreciated by the people around it, who affect what it does or are affected by what it does.

Sam Black in the book ‘Practical Public Relations’ says that the fundamental purpose of the Public Relations practice is to establish a two way flow of mutual understanding based on truth, knowledge and full information.

The publisher of a pioneer newsletter of Public Relations “Public Relations News”, Denny Griswold defines the term thus: ‘Public Relations is the management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an organization with the public interest, executes a programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.’
According to Dr Rex F Harlow, “Public relation is the distinctive management function, which helps establish and maintain lines of communication, understanding, and acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics.”

Objectives of Public Relations


We have diverse human institutions interacting with one another. For their smooth functioning, they need to pay greater attention to understanding human attitudes in order to seek each others’ acceptance and cooperation. Understanding the difficulty in bridging the yawning gap in any process of communication between what the sender means and what the receiver thinks is necessary. For that reason, ‘Public Relations’ has become an important thing in the present day life. The following are the main objectives of PR :
  • Maintain the prestige or favorable image.
  • Promote the product and service.
  • Maintain the good will among the employees, dealers, distributors, suppliers, stockholders, community and the govt.
  • Prevention and solution of the labour problem.
  • Overcoming miss-conceptions and prejudice.
  • Ability to attract the personnel.
  • Educate the public to the use of the product and service.
  • Investigate the attitude of various groups towards the policies.
  • Formulation and guidance of the policies.


Basic Functions of Public Relations

The basic functions of PR can be mentioned as follows –

1. To inform the publics about their specific activities.
2. To interact with various government and non government departments for smooth running of the organization.
3. To build healthy image in the minds of the masses.
4. To manage a crisis situation.
5. To maintain good media relations
6. To use various PR tools to achieve the goals



CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. Do you think Public Relations is a management function?

2. Discuss the definition of PR given by the British Institute of Public Relations.(word limit 100).

3. Enumerate the nature of PR in an organization.


ACTIVITY


Observe the Public Relations activities carried out of by a Bank nearer to your locality.

 

Growth and Development of Public Relations


The use of public relation seems to be older than that of its origin as a term. When Queen Elizabeth-I came to the power in 1558, the internal situation of the UK was in disarray in which the possibility of rebellion always endangered the stability of the government. But Elizabeth was not only able to manage the affair by bringing stability and order in the society, but also raised the nation to an acclaimed height. One of the secrets of her miraculous success was unquestioningly good public relations she employed by appointing able administrators who rendered a good deal of dedicated service to the nation.  

Public relations is considered an important tool in moulding public opinion which constitutes the basic spirit of democracy. The term public opinion was not used until the eighteenth century. The Greek writers elaborated on public will, which was ultimately shaped by the Romans in the expression of Vox Populli (popularly known as Vox Pops). The need of influencing voice of the people on predetermined line paved the ground for the emergence of public relations. Information is the core of communication which is partly designed to influence the action and opinion of the public. When information is disseminated with the purpose, it is communication.

American President Thomas Jefferson first coined the term public relations in his address to the Congress in 1807. The intention of the President was to explore meaningful words for expressing his idea. Public Relations as an organized profession emerged in the United States. According to Scott Phillip the birth of public relations was closely associated with the beginning of American industrialization. In 1900 Publicity Bureau, a public relations consultancy firm, was established in Boston. In 1915, Ivy Lee engineered public campaign on behalf of Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Lee was perhaps the most famous of the early public relations practitioners. He helped to develop many of the techniques and principles that today’s practitioners follow. He believed in open communications with the media, and he was candid and frank in his approach to the press. He understood that good corporate performance was the basis of good publicity. Many believe that his major contribution was to humanize wealthy businessmen and to cast big business in a more positive light.

A former Wall Street reporter, Ivy Lee became a public relations counselor with George Parker in 1904. He developed a publicity policy of “the public be informed” in contrast to the infamous statement of financier William Vanderbilt, “the public be damned.”

Business had to tell its story honestly, accurately, and openly in order to win public understanding and support’.. .. Lee

During the First World War, the then US president, Woodrow Wilson created a committee on Public Information headed by George Creel. It had many young faces, who acted as propagandists. The objective of the committee was to unite the public opinion in favour of the war. During those times PR was the form of publicity & its objective was to influence the masses and it was synonymous with ‘influencing’. There was a quiet period between WW-I & WW-II. When the PR exercises had been stopped during the WW-II, the need of the PR was felt again. This time the emphasis was on the two way communication and relationships.

PR in India
In India the use of public relation dates back to the time of Ashok, the Maruya Emperor who made arrangements for inscribing his message on different parts of his empire. The edicts were to inform the people about the different aspects of his policy. He urged the people to perform certain tasks which were mainly designed to establish general welfare on religious lines. Another aspect of the inscriptions was to seek goodwill from the people in order to strengthen the order of establishment. The language of the script was not same in different regions. The objective of using different scripts in providing the same information was to widen the scope of understanding in the context of specific needs of people living in different parts of empire. Emperor Ashok realized that the better understanding of the script would pave the ground for winning the people’s confidence which might be described as an exercise of public relations.

The public relation information is considered to be the staple food that is being dished out to the target audience or to the external public with a definite purpose. Hence, public relations may be described as a communication that is designed to influence the behaviour of the people. Kabir, Srimanta Sankardev, Srimanta Madhavdev, Chaitnya Mahaprabhu, and other great religious saints try to diffuse knowledge through the traditional or folk media of communication in order to bring revolutionary changes in human consciousness. In the twentieth century Mao-Tse-Tung and Mahatma Gandhi gave birth to the concept of mass communication which demanded a good deal of public relations exercise in understanding the true ethos of the people and transforming the peoples behavior into mass movements.  As the days rolled by the public relations started to be an integral part of business and commercial activity. Even the modern politics can not go a single step without the help of public relations. The success of every policy in social, economic or governmental sphere is highly conditioned with the co-operation of people. For winning the confidence of the people the only effective means is public relations.

Modern Public Relations in India
Business and commerce in the present day world is highly professional in its approach to meet the challenge of competition. It is almost customary for the corporate sector to adopt the appropriate public relations strategy for formulating and implementing policy which holds the key to success. Though viewed from different angles, the development of Public Relations in India can be grouped under four phases:

(i) We can say this period as philanthropic stage. The early stage where Public Relations was practiced less as a matter of deliberate Public Relations policy and more out of a liberal and philanthropic approach or out of sheer necessity for disseminating information. In this stage various organizations, especially the British Govt. and some other private organizations tried to disseminate information for the development of the society as a whole and this stage continued till the World War II;

(ii) The next stage started during the World War II and can be defined

as a stage of conscious PR. In the inception period of this stage, our ruler consciously tried to persuade the people’s attitude towards the World War-II, because maximum number of people of the country did not support the war. This stage still continues but a further development took place in the post-independence period especially towards the latter half of the fifties and the early half of the sixties;

(iii) The third stage of Public Relations was marked by a more systematic approach of the independent India’s new government. The Govt. of India tried to popularize various policies and programmes, which were basically started to establish a social welfare state. This stage is also represented by the response of organizations in India to the new environment created in the wake of the Government’s Industrial Policy Resolution and the growth of democratic institutions in India - Parliament, the Legislatures, etc.

(iv) The professional public relations started in this period in the country. The fourth stage is represented by what one may call the stage of professionalism in Public Relations when Public Relations practitioners began to organize themselves as a professional body and tried to develop their skills as Public Relations people. It was in this period that the Public Relations Society of India began to play an active role and initiated a movement to improve the standards of Public Relations practice in India.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS



1. When were the modern public relations started? Who was the person behind the starting of modern PR in the world?

2. Who was Ivy L Lee?


ACTIVITY


1. Open a daily newspaper and try to identify and differentiate publicity and advertising.

2. Try to develop your speaking skill and try to make friendships with at least three people in a day.

 


Target Audience & Publics of PR


The target audience is a segment of the large audience identified for aiming or targeting the messages or programmes in mass communication. To fulfill the need of the target audience is one of the most important aspects of an organization.

Target audiences are distinct groups or segments of customers. Most businesses cater to a variety of clients and customers. Some marketing strategies will be relevant to all those segments, but knowing each target audience well will help the company to deliver the marketing messages to get from customers the positive response.
A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience and to tailor the message to appeal to the audience. It can be a general, nationwide or worldwide audience, but it is more often a segment of a population. PR firms cater to a very broad range of audiences on a daily basis. A PR cell needs to communicate with many different groups of people. It is necessary to choose the strategy and media to reach them effectively.

There are certain categories of the publics for any broad PR programme

  • The community – People around the organization or its location;
  • Opinion leaders - People who command and influence the publics such as the politicians, bureaucrats, social workers, etc;
  • The Media - The press, television, radio, etc.
  • The Employees-The people who work for the organization, from the top management to the lower cadres;
  • The Suppliers – The person who supplies different required materials,
  • The Customer and users- Present, past and future;
  • The Traders - Distributors, wholesalers, agents, etc.; and
  • The Financial contacts - Bankers, shareholders, investors, brokers etc.


CHECK YOUR PROGRESS



What do you mean by target audience?

The Publics of Public Relations

The concept of public relations basically consists of two terms. The public and the relations. The term ‘relations’ stands for mutual dealings or connections or communications among persons or groups. Now what is the meaning of public here? Webster’s dictionary defines it as – ‘People in general considered as a whole or a body of people sharing some common interest’. It means “a public may be defined as any group of people tied together, however loosely, by some common bond of interest or concern.” In connection with our discipline, public is referred to employees, stock holders, customers etc.

Already we have discussed in the first unit that public relations is a management function. From the management’s point of view, there are two types of public relations – first is the internal public relations and other is the external. The management of an organization or a firm has to enlist the support as well as the participation of its employees to achieve the goals and to win the confidence and trust of the other publics of the organization, who are directly or indirectly related with the organization.
So, in traditional public relations usage, the publics are divided into two categories – internal public and external public. Let us discuss both categories in detail –

Internal Publics
The internal publics are directly related or associated with the organization. They are the most closely related to the organization and share its identity, such as the administration, management and marketing etc.

An employee may be someone who is hired by an employer under a contract of employment to perform work on a regular basis. An employee works either at the employer’s premises or at a place otherwise agreed upon and is paid regularly, or enjoys fringe benefits and employment protection. Employees are the internal public in an organization. They are important because they directly participate in the various activities of the organization or in its functioning, like production, management etc. They have a share in the decision making process directly or indirectly. In an organization, the employees can only run it smoothly. Harmony and mutual understanding between the employees and the management is a prerequisite for the increasing creativity and productivity of an organization. So, effective and persuasive communication between the employee and the management is very much important for the improvement and the development of the image of an organization.

An employee always wants to know about the various achievements, developments, new facilities, advantages and disadvantages of those facilities cum initiatives or new policies and the new deals of the organization. Therefore, public relations for the internal publics are of paramount importance not only for dissemination of information regarding the organization but also for developing the network as well as the work culture.

In an organization all employees should act as public relations executives with the external publics for their organization. We generally do not want to go to a police station to file a complaint or we generally do not want to go to any government office because of the behaviour we are likely to receive from some of the employees working these. This is one of the important reason for the slow development of our state functionaries. On the other hand, in many organizations, employees do not know what is happening in their organization. Employees today expect more information on what is happening in the organization and how it will affect them in their daily routine. The public relations strategy must cover these issues for the internal public and must also convey all possible information on relevant facts, figures, achievements, crisis etc.. From this information they can also create an awareness and can help to maintain the standard and the reputation of the organization.

External Publics
The external publics are those who are associated with the organization, but not in a direct manner. As the name suggests, it is concerned with the people outside the organization. Already we have discussed the concept of the target audience. So, the external publics, may include the target audience and others, those who are indirectly associated with organization and who matter much for the company good will. In the public sector undertaking organizations, they have normally four groups of external publics, these are –

a) customers
b) government
c) shareholders
d) opinion leaders.

But in private organizations, their periphery is much broader than in the government or the public sector organizations. Let us discuss some groups of the external publics of an organization in general.
a) Customers
A customer is a purchaser of a product or service. A customer is a person or organization that purchases or obtains goods or services from other organizations such as manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, or service providers. A customer is not necessarily the same person. All the customers are the external public for an organization. But their decision always matters for the existence of the organization.

b) Share holders
The share holder is a person who owns shares of a fund or investment trust of an organization. Actually, the share holders are the real owners of an organization, especially for a private organization. A private sector organization, therefore, cannot afford to ignore the interests of its share holders. The private organization has to depend on these financial matters and the activities of these external public is very important to sustain the organization’s further development.

c) Opinion leaders
The opinion leader is a high-profile person or organization that can significantly influence public opinion. An opinion leader can be a politician, religious, business or community leader, journalist, or educator etc. Show business and sports personalities can exert a great deal of influence on young people’s leisure, lifestyles and buying habits. They can influence the general people, may be the customers, and those who are directly or indirectly related with the organization. So, in public relations they are important for the organizational management.

d) Media and Journalists
Being a student of mass communication and journalism you can realize the media power and the importance of the journalists in the society. They can reform the society and can also persuade people towards something new. Therefore, every organization tries to maintain very good media relations. Media can also help to build a good image of the organization before the general mass.

e) Community
The Wikipedia Encyclopedia defines the term community as a biological term. It is a group of interacting organisms sharing an environment. The word ‘community’ is derived from the Latin communitas (meaning the same), which is in turn derived from communis, which means “common, public, shared by all or many”. In human communities, intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. Traditionally in sociology, a “community” has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. So the community around us is very much important for smooth running of an organization.

f) Government
A government is “the organization, that is the governing authority, of a political unit”, “the ruling power in a political society”, and the apparatus through which a governing body functions and exercises authority.” Statist theorists maintain that the necessity of government derives from the fact that the people need to live in communities. Yet personal autonomy must be constrained in these communities. In our country we have a three tier government system, one is in the centre, i.e. union government, one is in the state i.e. the state governments and the local self government at the grassroots level. Basically an organization always maintains a good relation with the union govt. and with the respective state governments concerned. So the govt. people are the external public for an organization.

g) Financial relations
In the financial management, the prime target groups of a company are share holders and potential investors. They have to be given the required information. Public relations must establish, maintain and improve the organization’s image, so that it gets financial support from the public and financial institutions.

h) Citizen action groups
An organization may adopt a democratic approach while dealing with the citizens. The management of an organization should participate in various social, cultural and other activities to develop a better understanding and interaction with the various groups of the society.

i) Public at large
Already we have discussed that the public may be defined as any group of people tied together, however loosely, by some common bond of interest or concern. But in this context we can include all the people of the society near the periphery of the organization. The image of the organization is vital for the people at large.
With the increasing growth of business and commerce, the organization needs to maintain very good public relations with the external public.


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)



Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders, as well as the environment. It is also called corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business and corporate social opportunity. It is the acknowledgement by companies or organizations that they should be accountable not only for their financial performance, but also for the impact of their activities on society and/or the environment. Discussions surrounding the concept are still at an evolutionary stage, although the principles of CSR have long been a part of business strategy. This obligation is seen to extend beyond the statutory obligation to comply with legislation and sees the organizations voluntarily taking further steps to improve the quality of life for the employees and their families as well as for the local community and the society at large.

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development in its publication “Making Good Business Sense” by Lord Holme and Richard Watts, define the term “Corporate Social Responsibility” as “the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large”

According to a class of businessman, “CSR is about business giving back to society”. The same report gave some evidence of the different perceptions of what this should mean from a number of different societies across the world.Some of the definitions of CSR are - “CSR is about capacity building for sustainable livelihoods. It respects cultural differences and finds the business opportunities in building the skills of employees, the community and the government”.

Traditionally in the United States, CSR has been defined much more in terms of a philanthropic model. Companies make profits, unhindered except by fulfilling their duty to pay taxes. Then they donate a certain share of the profits to charitable causes. The profit earned by a corporation without sharing part of it from social responsibilities is often considered tainted and therefore some corporation take help socially beneficial scheme for the general uplift of the people.

The European model is much more focused on operating the core business in a socially responsible way, complemented by investment in communities for solid business case reasons. Social responsibility becomes an integral part of the wealth creation process - which if managed properly should enhance the competitiveness of business and maximize the value of wealth creation to society. When times get hard, there is the incentive to practice CSR more and better. It is a philanthropic exercise which is peripheral to the main business.

An essential component of an organization’s corporate social responsibility is to care for the community or the society. It endeavours to make a positive contribution to the underprivileged communities by supporting a wide range of socio-economic, educational and health initiatives. Basically CSR is about how companies or organizations manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. What do you mean by the publics?

2. Name the various types of the publics associated with an organization.

3. What do you mean by CSR?


ACTIVITY


Observe the Public Relations activities carried out of a Bank near your locality and prepare a list of internal as well as external public of that bank.
 

LET US SUM UP


‘Public Relations’ is the management function that creates, develops, and carries out policies and programmes to influence public opinion or public reaction about an idea, a product, or an organization. The field of public relations has become an important part of the economic, social, and political life. It includes advertising, publicity, promotional activities, and press contact. Public relations co exist in business with marketing and merchandising to create the climate in which all selling functions occur. In traditional public relations usage, the publics are divided into two categories – internal public and external public.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders, as well as the environment.


FURTHER READING


1. Handbook of Journalism and Mass Commuication by V. B. Agarwal and V.S. Gupta, Concept publishing, New Delhi.
2. Practical Public Relations by Sam Black, Universal Book Stall, Delhi.


ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


A
1. Yes. It is an integral part of management, because the main task of the Public Relations department is to establish and maintain a good relation and mutual understanding between the organization and its publics.

2. According to the British Institute of Public Relations, it is a‘deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its’ public.’

‘Deliberate’ because public relations practitioners try to make it clear that the success of their job depends on the promises and that nothing should happen by an accident, ‘planned’, because a public relations practitioner is always in control of what is being done and nothing is left to chance; so he must work to a plan and on a planned basis. It is also ‘sustained’ because a public relations practitioner always tries to implement a thought or an idea that will remain with the person at home.

3. PR conducts a planned and sustained programme as a part of the management of an organization. It deals with the relations between an organization and its public. It monitors awareness, opinions, attitudes, and behaviour patterns inside and outside an organization. It analyses the impact of policies, procedures, and actions on public. It also gives information about new actions, policies, procedures which would be beneficial for managing the firm. Some PR exercises are exclusively planned and executed to build the image of the firm. It ensures two way communication flow between the organization and its public. A PR exercise is always an effort to build long term relations between the firm and its public.

B.
1. In 1900 Publicity Bureau, a public relations consultancy firm was established in Boston and public relations became a profession. In 1915, the legendary pr exponent, Ivy Lee actively participated in public campaign on behalf of Pennsylvania Railroad Company.

2. Ivy Ledbetter Lee started his career in the field of mass communication as a reporter for the Wall Street. In 1904, he joined as a public relations counsellor with George Parker and became the most famous of the early public relations practitioners. He helped to develop many of the techniques and principles that today’s practitioners follow. He believed in open communications with the media, and he was candid and frank in his approach to the press. He understood that good corporate performance was the basis of good publicity. Many believe that his major contribution was to humanize wealthy businessmen and to cast big business in a more positive light.

C.
1. Target audiences are distinct groups or segments of customers. The target audience is a segment of the large audience identified for aiming or targeting the messages or programmes in mass communication.

D.
1. The word ‘public’ does not have any plural form. However, in case of PR, the ‘publics’ is used to indicate various categories of people, who are associated with an organization.

2. In traditional public relations usage, the publics are divided into two categories – internal public and external public. The internal publics are directly related or associated with the organization. The external publics are those who are also associated with the organization, but not in a direct manner.

3. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders, as well as the environment.


POSSIBLE QUESTIONS


A) Broad Questions
1. What do you mean by Public Relations? How can it build an image for an organization?
2. What are the various stages of development of modern PR in India?
3. What do you mean Corporate Social Responsibility? Do you think it is an important management task for an organization?

B) Short Questions
1. What do you mean by target audience? Answer with suitable examples.
2. Prepare a list of internal and external publics of a bank.
3. What are the main differences between advertisement and public relations as a part of the communication discipline?
4. Who was Ivey Lee? Enumerate his contribution towards modern PR.