INTRODUCTION TO NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION 1968

 

UNIT STRUCTURE

1. Learning Objectives
2. Introduction
3. Declaration of the Government Policy
4. Resolution Adopted on National Policy of Education.
5. Evaluation of the National Policy of Education, 1968
6. Let Us Sum Up
7. Further Readings
8. Answers to Check Your Progress
9. Possible Question
10. References

LEARNING OBJECTIVES



After going trough this unit you will be able to
Explain how the National Policy of Education of 1968 was formed.
Familiar with the Policy Declaration of the Government.
Discuss the Resolution adopted on National Policy of Education.
Evaluated the Policy Resolution of 1968.

INTRODUCTION


We have already discussed the recommendation of the Kothari Education Commission in the previous unit. The National Policy of Education 1968 is based on the recommendations of the Commission of 1964-66.. The Commission recommended that the Government of India should issue a statement on the National Policy on Education which should provide guidance to the state Governments and the local authorities in preparing and implementing educational plans. In 1967 the Govt. of India constituted a committee of Members of parliament on Education to prepare the draft of a statement on the National Policy of Education. The Committee brought together the leading members of almost all the political parties in the country and prepared a draft which was considered by the Central Advisory Board of Education. A general consensus on the National Policy on Education emerged in the course of the Board’s deliberations.

This unit will help you to understand the resolution adopted on National Policy on Education 1968 and its evaluation.


DECLARATION OF THE GOVERNMENT POLICY


. In its policy declaration the Government of India stated that the Government is convinced that a radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines recommended by the education commission is essential for economic and cultural development of the country for national integration and for realizing the ideal of a socialistic pattern of society. This will involve a transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people, effort to expand educational opportunity, effort to raise the quality of education at all stages, emphasis on development of science and technology and cultivation of moral and social values. The educational system must produce young man and women of character and ability committed to national service and development. Only then education will be able to play it vital role in promoting national progress, creating a sense of common citizenship and culture and strengthening national integration. Only then education will be able to play its vital role in promoting national progress.

LET US KNOW

The National Policy of Education,1968 was formed on the basis of the recommendations of the Kothari Education Commission 1964-66.


RESOLUTION ADOPTED ON NATIONAL POLICY OF EDUCATION


Now we are familiar with the background, let us discuss the resolutions that have been included in the National Policy of Education, 1968. These resolutions can be considered as the follow up programme of the recommendations of the Kothari Education Commisison.

Free and Compulsory Education -

  • Strenuous efforts should be made for the early fulfillment of the Directive Principle under Article 45 of the constitution seeking to provide free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14.

  • Suitable programmes should be developed to reduce the prevailing wastage and stagnation in schools and to ensure that every child who is enrolled in school successfully completes the prescribed course.
Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers –

Of all the factors which determine the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the teacher is undoubtedly the most important.

  • Teachers be accorded an honoured place in the society.

  • Their emoluments and other service conditions should be adequate and satisfactory having regard to their qualifications and responsibilities.

  • The academic freedom of teachers to pursue and publish independent studies and researches and to speak and write about significant national and international issues should be protected.

  • Teacher education, particularly in-service education, should receive due emphases.
Development of languages -

  • Regional Languages: The energetic development of Indian languages and literature is a sine qua non for educational and cultural development. Unless this is done, the creative energies of the people will not be released, standards of education will not improve, knowledge will not spread to the people, and the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses will remain static if not widen further. The use of regional languages should not be only at the primary and secondary stages, but urgent steps should be taken to adopt them as media of education at the university stage.

  • Three-Language Formula : At the secondary stage, the state Governments should adopt and vigorously implement, the three language formula which includes the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, along with regional languages, Hindi and English.

  • Hindi : Every effort should be made to promote the development of Hindi as the link language. Due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve as provided for in the Article 351 of the constitution, as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India.

  • Sanskrit : Considering the special importance of Sanskrit to the growth and development of the Indian languages and its unique contribution to the cultural unity of the country, facilities for its teaching at the school and university stages should be offered on a more liberal scale.

  • International Languages : Special emphasis needs to be laid on the study of English and other international languages.
Equalisation of Educational Opportunities –

  • Strenuous efforts should be made to equalise educational opportunity.

  • Regional imbalances in the provision of educational facilities should be corrected and good educational facilities should be provided in rural and other backward areas.

  • To promote social cohesion and national integration in the common school system as recommended by the Education Commission should be adopted.

  • Effort should be made to improve the standard of education in general schools.

  • All special schools like Public schools should be required to admit students on the basis of merit and also to provide free studentships to prevent segregation of social classes.

  • The education of girls should receive emphasis, not only on grounds of social justice but also because it accelerates social transformation.

  • More intensive efforts are needed to develop education among the backward classes and especially among the tribal people.

  • Educational facilities for the physically and mentally handicapped children should be expanded and attempts should be made to develop integrated programmes enabling the handicapped children to study in regular schools.
Identification of Talent -

For the cultivation of excellence, it is necessary that talent in diverse fields should be identified at as early and is as possible, and every stimulus and opportunity given for its full development.
Work - experience and national Service -

The school and the community should be brought closer through suitable programmes of mutual service and support. Work experience and national service including participation in meaningful and challenging programmes of community service and national reconstruction should accordingly become an integral part of education. Emphasis in these programmes should be on self - help, character formation and on developing a sense of social commitment.
Science Education and Research -

With a view to accelerating growth of the national economy, science education and research should receive high priority. Science and mathematics should be an integral part of general education till the end of the school stage.
Education for Agriculture and Industry -
  • Special emphasis should be placed on the development of education for agriculture and industry.

  • There should be at least one agricultural university in every state. These should be single campus Universities and they may have constituent college on different campuses. Other Universities may also be assisted to develop strong departments for the study of one or more aspects of agriculture. In technical education, practical training in industry should form an integral part of such education. Technical education and research should be related closely to industry. There should be provision for continuous cooperation between the two.
Production of Books -
  • The quality of books should be improved by attracting the best writing talent. Immediate steps should be taken for the production of high quality text books for schools and universities.

  • Frequent changes of textbooks should be avoided and their prices should be low enough for all to buy them.
  • The possibility of establishing autonomous books corporations on commercial lines should be examined and efforts should be made to have a few basic text books common throughout the country.
  • Special attention should be given to books for children and to university level books in regional languages.
Examinations -

A major goal of examination reforms should be to improve the reliability and validity of examinations and to make evaluation a continuous process, it should aim at helping the student to improve his level of achievement rather than at ‘certifying’ the quality of his performance at a given moment of time.
Secondary Education -

Educational opportunity at the secondary (and higher) level is a major instrument of social change and transformation. Facilities for secondary education should accordingly be extended to areas and classes which have been denied these in the past.

There is need to increase facilities for technical and vocational education at this stage. Provision of facilities for secondary and vocational education should conform broadly to requirements of the developing economy and real employment opportunities. Facilities for technical and vocational education should be suitably diversified to cover a large number of fields, such as agriculture, industry, trade and commerce, medicine and public health, home management, arts and crafts, secretarial training, etc.
University Education -
  • The number of whole - time students to be admitted to a college or university department should be determined with reference to the laboratory, library and other facilities and the strength of the staff.

  • Considerable care is needed in establishing new universities. They should be started only after an adequate provision of funds and due care should be taken to ensure proper standards.

  • Special attention should be given to the organization of post-graduate courses and to the improvement of standards of training and research at this level.

  • Centres of advanced study should be strengthened and a small number of ‘Clusters of centres’ aiming at the highest possible standard in research and training should be established.

  • There is need to give increased support to research in the Universities. The institutions for research should as far as possible, function within the fold of universities or in intimate association with them.
Part - time Education and Correspondence Courses -

Part - time education and correspondence courses should be developed on a large scale at the university stage. Such facilities should also be developed for secondary school students, for teachers and for agricultural, industrial and other workers. Education through part - time and correspondence courses should be given the same status as full - time education. Such facilities will provide opportunities to the large number of people who have the desire to educate themselves.
Spread of Literacy and Adult Education -

The liquidation of mass illiteracy is necessary not only for promoting participation in the working of democratic institutions and for accelerating programmes of production, especially in agriculture, but for quickening the tempo of national development in general. Employees in large commercial, industrial and other concerns should be made functionally literate as early as possible.
A lead in this direction should come from the industrial undertakings in the public sector. Teachers and students should be actively involved in organising literacy campaigns.
Games and Sports -

Games and sports should be developed on a large scale with the objective of improving the physical fitness and sportsmanship of the average student as well as of those who excel in this department.
Education of Minorities -

Every effort should be made not only to protect the rights of minorities but to promote their educational interests as suggested in the statement issued by the Conference of the Chief Ministers of states and Central Ministers held in August 1961.
The Educational structure -

It will be advantageous to have a broadly uniform educational structure in all parts of the country. The ultimate objective should be to adopt the 10+2+3 pattern, the higher secondary stage of two years being located in schools, colleges or both according to local conditions.

LET US KNOW

Conference of the Chief Ministers of states and Central Ministers held in August 1961

On 11th and 12th, August 1961, in Delhi, a conference was held among the Chief Ministers and Central Ministers of the State where the Prime Minister was the chairman of the Conference.

  • Through the conference, the basic emphasis was given on primary and secondary education of the minorities.

  • The question of affiliation of schools and colleges using minority languages to Universities, and other authorities situated outside the State was considered. It was agreed that in most cases it should be possible to arrange for the affiliation of such institutions to Universities or Boards within the State. But where these were insuperable difficulties in making arrangements for such affiliation within the State, they might be affiliated to Universities or Boards outside the State.

  • Where at least sixty per cent of the population of a district speaks or uses a language other than the official language of the State, this language of the minority group should be recongised as an official language in that district, in addition to the State Official language

  • Whenever in a district or a smaller area like Municipality or Tehsil, a linguistic minority constitutes 15 to 20 per cent of the population, it would be desirable to get important government notices and rules published in the language of the minority in addition to any other language or languages in which such documents may otherwise be published in the usual course.

    CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    1. Mention any five resolutions adopted by the National Policy on Education 1968.



EVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL POLICY OF EDUCATION, 1968


The National Policy on Education was welcomed in every part of the country. This policy passes some special features as well aas a few drewbacks. We are giving here an evaluation of the policy as whole.

It was an important historical event for education in Independent India because this was the first, when an attempt was made to give some sense of direction to the country’s educational system.
The three lanquage formula proposed in this policy was very important from the point of view of national integration.
Ensuring equality of educational opportunity was praiseworthy.
Through the policy since 1968 accountability of the Central Government with regard to education has been fully recognized.
Raising the standard of education at all stages has been fully recognized.
The policy is criticized on the ground that it is very vague, giving important on too many things at a time.
Policy has given important on creating educational faciltities for minorities. But as long as the word ‘minority’ is applied, it will continue to hamper their progress and they should be regarded ad ordinary citizens.
The three lanquage formula is criticized as ‘political compromise’. It is said that no one has accepted it in his heart and the students will accept the third lanquage merely as a burden thrust upon them.

LET US KNOW

A radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines recommended by the Education Commission, which will involve -

  • A transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people.
  • A continuous effort to expand educational opportunity.
  • A sustained and intensive effort to raise the equality of education at all stages.
  • An emphasis on the development of science and technology.
  • Emphasis on the cultivation of moral and social values.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS.

2. Write 5 points included in NPE (1968) for radical reconstruction of education recommended by Education Commission (1964 - 66) in the given space -


LET US SUM UP


In this unit, we have covered the following points :

The Government of India issued the Resolution on National Policy on Education in 1968. Its objectives were on -

  • Free and Compulsory Education.
  • Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers
  • Development of Languages.
  • Equalisation of Educational Opportunities.
  • Identification of Talents
  • Work - Experience and National Service.
  • Science Education and Research.
  • Education for Agriculture and Industry.
  • Production of Books.
  • Examinations.
  • Secondary Education
  • University Education
  • Part time education and correspondence courses.
  • Spread of Literacy and Adult Education.
  • Games and Sports
  • Education of Minorities.
  • The Educational Structure.
EXTRACTS FROM THE POLICY :

A radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines recommended by the Education Commission, which will involve -
  • A transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people.
  • A continuous effort to expand educational opportunity.
  • A sustained and intensive effort to raise the equality of education at all stages.
  • An emphasis on the development of science and technology.
  • Emphasis on the cultivation of moral and social values.

FURTHER READINGS


  • Aggarwal, J.C., : Landmarks in the History of Modern Indian Education ; Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd. ; New Delhi - 110014;
  • Nanda, S.K., : Indian Education and its problems today; Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
  • Sharma, R.N. ; History and problems of education in India ; Surjeet Publications, Delhi.

ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS



1.
  • Free and Compulsory Education
  • Secondary Education
  • University Education
  • Adult Education
  • Science Education and Research.
2.
  • A transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people.
  • A continuous effort to expand educational opportunity.
  • A sustained and intensive effort to raise the equality of education at all stages.
  • An emphasis on the development of science and technology.
  • Emphasis on the cultivation of moral and social values.


POSSIBLE QUESTIONS


(a) Discuss the important resolutions adopted by the National Policy on Education 1968.
(b) How will our educational system be improved through the National Policy on Education ? Explain with examples.


REFERENCES


  • Aggarwal, J.C., : Landmarks in the History of Modern Indian Education; Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi; Reprint 1994.
  • Chaube, S.P., : History and Problems of Indian Education; Vindo Pustak Mandir, Agra 2 ; Fourth Edition 1992.
  • Nanda, S.K. : Indian Education and its problems today; Kabyani Publishers, New Delhi; second Edition 1982.
  • Sharma, R.N. ; History and problems of education in India ; Surjeet Publications, Delhi.